Photovoltaics & Net Zero Energy
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The market for
PV" is projected to double
Thin Film Photovoltaics
What are Thin Film Photovoltaics?
Without a doubt, the most exciting technology in the solar power industry is "Thin Film Photovoltaics."
Thin Film Photovoltaics technology represents the next big thing in renewable energy and solar power as it integrates nanotechnologies into the production of solar photovoltaics.
According to the Department of Energy, the recent technological advances in thin film photovoltaics make this a very exciting time to be in the solar energy industry. These advances have led to many new developments in the components and manufacturing of thin film photovoltaics. This has made thin film photovoltaics cheaper to manufacture as they are also now easier to install since they are extremely versatile, flexible, bendable, and much lighter.
Thin film photovoltaics have led many to believe that as much as 50% of our nation's future power will be generated by "power buildings" that integrate "building integrated photovoltaics" or "BIPV" into the building's skin or exterior surfaces, that convert sunlight into "pollution free power" for use in the building. This also designates these buildings (and homes) as "Net Zero Energy Buildings" and make the option for going grid-free, or not connecting to the grid, a real possibility.
According to the Department of Energy, the market potential for printed electronics will grow into a $47 billion market by 2018. Thin film photovoltaics represents a significant portion of this market - and based on this heavily researched solar technology, thin film photovoltaics now represents a $20 billion/year industry in the U.S.
The solar PV panels produced under the thin film photovoltaics umbrella have the potential to produce power significantly cheaper power than today’s typical silicon-based PV panels. The panels are usually made in the form of a monolithic piece of glass, upon which various thin films are deposited, although a number of firms are working on depositing the materials on a substrate, such as stainless steel or plastic.
Types of Thin Film Photovoltaics – there are primarily three types of thin film photovoltaics and include:
Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide
Amorphous Silicon had the largest share of the thin film photovoltaics market through 2006. It has been researched for the longest period of time, may be the best understood material of the three and has been commercial for the longest. Cadmium Telluride has the remaining share and is growing.
Thin Film Photovoltaics Advantages over PolyCrystalline Silicon Photovoltaics
Lower cost of production of the
Lower production facility cost per watt - CapEx
Uses as little as 1/500 of the amount used in standard silicon cells
Lower energy payback – amount of time until the product produces more energy than was utilized in its manufacture.
Produces more power/watt
Superior performance in hot and cloudy climates
Integrates seemlessly in homes and buildings – see Building Integrated Photovoltaics
Produces the lowest cost power
Engineering and Project Development Services
Absorption Chillers * Adsorption Chillers * Ammonia Chillers * Automated Demand Response
Brayton Cycle * Carbon Emissions * Carnot Cycle * Cheng Cycle * CHP Systems * Clean Power Generation
Cogeneration * Compressed Air Energy Storage * Concentrating Solar Power * Dispersed Generation
EcoGeneration * Emissions Abatement * Energy Master Planning * Frequency Regulation
Engine Driven Chillers * Graz Cycle * Greenhouse Gas Emissions * Greenhouse Gas Reporting
Grid Free Energy * Grid Free Power * Inlet Cooling * Load Leveling
Mechanical Refrigeration * Net Zero Energy * Net Zero Energy Buildings * Net Zero Energy Homes
Organic Rankine Cycle * PlugIn Electric Vehicles * Rankine Cycle * Recycled Energy
Solar Cogeneration * Solar Trigeneration * Trigeneration * Waste Heat Recovery
The Graz Cycle is also known as the "Zero Emission Power Plant!"
Greenhouse Gas Reporting services now available
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Since the year 1750
World CO2 since 1750 (cubic feet)
World Carbon Dioxide Emissions since 1750 (cubic feet)
carbon clock tracks total carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons since 1750.
Since 1750, humans have emitted over 5 trillion pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Roughly half of this has ended up in the oceans where it is beginning to damage the coral reefs. The other half is still in the atmosphere and causing global warming. Each pound of CO2 takes up as much space as a 500 pound person.
The formula (which should be good for a year or two) is:
C(t) = 2.58 ×1012 + 1240×t, where t is seconds since the start of 2007.
C is tonnes (metric tons) of carbon dioxide emissions.
2205 x C gives pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.
That comes to over 43 billion tons/year or over 86 trillion pounds/year.
Carbon dioxide (2) = 1 carbon atom with 2 oxygen atoms.
Carbon has relative weight 12 and Oxygen 16.
So it takes only 12 pounds of carbon to make 12+16+16 = 44 pounds of CO2.
the Loss of a "Few" Polar Bears
Photo courtesy of Alaska Image Library. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Renewable Energy Institute
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy!"
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