Thin Film Photovoltaics

Thin Film Photovoltaics & Net Zero Energy 
Architecture, Engineering & Project Development

Thin Film PV

Buildings of the Future  *  EcoGeneration  *  Micro-Grid  *  Solar Cogeneration  Trigeneration

"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" SM


"Net Zero Energy" to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035

Commercial customers such as Data Centers, Hospitals, Hotels and 
Restaurants in many parts of the USA will select either a Solar Cogeneration 
or Solar Trigeneration energy system for their Net Zero Energy solution.


Austin, Texas

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Thin Film Photovoltaics

What are Thin Film Photovoltaics?

Without a doubt, the most exciting technology in the solar power industry is "Thin Film Photovoltaics."  

Thin Film Photovoltaics technology represents the next big thing in renewable energy and solar power as it integrates nanotechnologies into the production of solar photovoltaics. 

According to the Department of Energy, the recent technological advances in Thin Film Photovoltaics make this a very exciting time to be in the solar energy industry.  These advances have led to many new developments in the components and manufacturing of Thin Film Photovoltaics. This has made Thin Film Photovoltaics cheaper to manufacture as they are also now easier to install since they are extremely versatile, flexible, bendable, and much lighter.

Thin Film Photovoltaics have led many to believe that as much as 50% of our nation's future power will be generated by "power buildings" that integrate "building integrated photovoltaics" or "BIPV" into the building's skin or exterior surfaces, that convert sunlight into "pollution free power" for use in the building.  This also designates these buildings (and homes) as "Net Zero Energy Buildings" and make the option for going grid-free, or not connecting to the grid, a real possibility.

According to the Department of Energy, the market potential for printed electronics will grow into a $47 billion market by 2018.  Thin Film Photovoltaics represents a significant portion of this market - and based on this heavily researched solar technology, Thin Film Photovoltaics now represents a $20 billion/year industry in the U.S.

The solar PV panels produced under the Thin Film Photovoltaics umbrella have the potential to produce power significantly cheaper power than today’s typical silicon-based PV panels.  The panels are usually made in the form of a monolithic piece of glass, upon which various thin films are deposited, although a number of firms are working on depositing the materials on a substrate, such as stainless steel or plastic.

Types of Thin Film Photovoltaics there are primarily three types of thin film photovoltaics and include:

  1. Amorphous Silicon

  2. Cadmium Telluride

  3. Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide

Amorphous Silicon had the largest share of the thin film photovoltaics market through 2006. It has been researched for the longest period of time, may be the best understood material of the three and has been commercial for the longest. Cadmium Telluride has the remaining share and is growing. 

Thin Film Photovoltaics Advantages over PolyCrystalline Silicon Photovoltaics


Thin Film PV

Buildings of the Future  *  EcoGeneration  *  Micro-Grid  *  Solar Cogeneration  Trigeneration

"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" SM

Austin, Texas







Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Since the year 1750


World CO2 since 1750 (cubic feet)

World Carbon Dioxide Emissions since 1750 (cubic feet)

The carbon clock tracks total carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons since 1750.

Since 1750, humans have emitted over 5 trillion pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Roughly half of this has ended up in the oceans where it is beginning to damage the coral reefs. The other half is still in the atmosphere and causing global warming. Each pound of CO2 takes up as much space as a 500 pound person.

The formula (which should be good for a year or two) is:
C(t) = 2.58 ×1012 + 1240×t, where t is seconds since the start of 2007.

C is tonnes (metric tons) of carbon dioxide emissions.
2205 x C gives pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

That comes to over 43 billion tons/year or over 86 trillion pounds/year.

Carbon dioxide (2) = 1 carbon atom with 2 oxygen atoms.
Carbon has relative weight 12 and Oxygen 16.
So it takes only 12 pounds of carbon to make 12+16+16 = 44 pounds of CO2. 



What is Balance of System?

Balance of System or "BOS," also referred to as Balance of Plant or "BOP," consists of the remaining systems, components, and structures that comprise a complete power plant or energy system - not included in the prime mover and waste heat recovery (ex. gas turbines, steam turbines, heat recovery steam generators (HRSG), waste heat boilers, etc.) systems.  

What is Front End Engineering Design?

Front-end Engineering Design, or "FEED," also known as Front End Engineering, is the preliminary engineering and conceptual design completed in advance of the start of EPC (Engineering Procurement Construction) process.  Front End Engineering usually concludes with the engineering firm's presentation of an Engineering Feasibility Study or Analysis.

Front-end Engineering Design includes a design team that includes and integrates all or most engineering fields such as mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, environmental engineering, civil engineering, power engineering, chemical engineering, etc.  The FEED design team includes the project visualization and conceptualization stages, including "what-if" decision making analyses, integrating the client company's goals, objectives into an efficient and economic engineering solution.


“spending hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest thing that modern society could possibly do.  It’s very difficult to think of anything more idiotic than that.”  ~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA

Price of Addiction
to Foreign Oil

According to R. James Woolsey, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil.”


Balance of System  *  Engineering  *  Front-end Engineering Design  *  Molten Salt Storage


Solar power engineering feasibility review and technology evaluation provided for new  clients with a minimum project size of 3 MW and solar power plant located in the Southwest USA - includes CSP as well as solar PV, CPV and HCPV technologies.



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